Education Health Racism


Three-Fifths Compromise, May 25 to September 17, 1787 United States Constitutional Convention

Connecticut Compromise Proportional representation of the states in the House of Representatives, but required the Senate to be weighted equally among the states. Each state would have two representatives.

Compromise of 1790 Was done between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson with James Madison wherein Hamilton won the decision for the national government to take over and pay the state debts, and Jefferson and Madison obtained the national capital (District of Columbia) for the South. The compromise made possible the passage of the Residence and Funding Acts in July and August 1790

Toussaint Louverture  August/November 1791 – 1801 Freed and ruled the Island of  Santo Domingo/Haiti.

Fugitive Slave Act, February 12, 1793 was made part of the US Constitution, Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3, later superseded by the Thirteenth Amendment.

Louisiana Purchase, September 18, 1803

Missouri Compromise, March 3, 1820

Kansas–Nebraska Act, was passed in 1853, by the 33rd United States Congress and become law May 30, 1854

Compromise, Fugitive Slave Act, September 18,  1850


Martin Robinson Delany

Martin Robison Delany was born free on May 6, 1812, in Charles Town, Virginia, now within West Virginia. Although his father Samuel was enslaved, his mother was a free woman, and Martin took her status under slave law. Both sets of Martin Delany’s grandparents were African. Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of Black nationalism.He was also one of the first three blacks admitted to Harvard Medical School. Trained as an assistant and a physician, he treated patients during the cholera epidemics of 1833 and 1854 in Pittsburgh, when many doctors and residents fled the city. Active in recruiting blacks for the United States Colored Troops, he was commissioned as a major, the first African-American field officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War. After the Civil War, he worked for the Freedmen’s Bureau in the South, settling in South Carolina, where he became politically active. He ran unsuccessfully for Lieutenant Governor and was appointed a Trial Judge. Later he switched his party loyalty and worked for the campaign of Democrat Wade Hampton III, who won the 1876 election for governor. 


Alexander Thomas Augusta

Alexander Thomas Augusta, born of free African American parents, in Norfolk, Virginia. Later enrolled at Trinity College of the University of Toronto in 1850. He ran a business as a druggist and chemist. Six years later he received a degree in medicine. Augusta went to Washington, D.C., wrote Abraham Lincoln offering his services as a surgeon and was given a Presidential commission in the Union Army in October 1862. On April 4, 1863, he received a major’s commission as surgeon for African-American troops. This made him the United States Army’s first African-American physician out of eight in the Union Army and its highest-ranking African-American officer at the time.Augusta returned to private practice in Washington, D.C. He was attending surgeon to the Smallpox Hospital in Washington in 1870. He also served on the staff of the local Freedmen’s Hospital and was placed in charge of the hospital in 1863.