Alexander Thomas Augusta, born of free African American parents, in Norfolk, Virginia. Later enrolled at Trinity College of the University of Toronto in 1850. He ran a business as a druggist and chemist. Six years later he received a degree in medicine. Augusta went to Washington, D.C., wrote Abraham Lincoln offering his services as a surgeon and was given a Presidential commission in the Union Army in October 1862. On April 4, 1863, he received a major’s commission as surgeon for African-American troops. This made him the United States Army’s first African-American physician out of eight in the Union Army and its highest-ranking African-American officer at the time.Augusta returned to private practice in Washington, D.C. He was attending surgeon to the Smallpox Hospital in Washington in 1870. He also served on the staff of the local Freedmen’s Hospital and was placed in charge of the hospital in 1863.